Saturday, December 26, 2009

My- Aero car thoughts and insperations

Seems i am using my time on vacation to draw pics :-) and getting the level of my kid. He seems to be drawing better too.

Today i was able to get a clear picture of an aero design from existing size requirements from a normal car.

Picture follows :-)

Even its easy to swap the engine space and boot space so that a RR (Rear-engine, rear-wheel drive) layout can be made from the above design. On other thoughts , Putting a hybrid power train may increase the fuel economy and EV ranges.

The basic idea is the reduce the frontal area - for CdA (mostly airfoiled frontal area and reduced the back area ) and increase/optimize the curves over top,down and sides to that they can contribute forward pull using aerodynamics. The top,sides and bottom curves seems much important as they can give resulting forward moving forces. The bottom (down part ) curve may help more to push to front and same time balance the extra down (vertical component ) of the force made by the top curve. Its also very important to optimize curves for max advantage of those parts without affecting the passenger comfort and utility space.

I took the base height, width and other ratios from a Volvo S70 (my current car which i like the space inside ) for the above model so that it can seat 5 comfortably and have enough space ( its not a small car now - its a 5 seat modern hatchback bigger than Toyota Prius).

To my wonder, Its really great to see some old models , Let me upload them also to get a pic of how people were thinking in old days.

1937 Pillsbug : CD of 0.13 6 -7 Passenger

1937 Maybach

Don't know the model info but looks EV1 was taken from this one.

1984 Chevrolet Citation IV concept


Mercedes-Benz bionic car

Links :

Ecomodder : 65+ tips :

Cars to Emulate and Study:

© yankandpaste®

Sunday, December 20, 2009

An HHR replacer ?

A bit paint, base picture of an ev innovations Wave and here we go

A Ute and a 5 passenger hybrid crossover ? .

My wife was saying the first name came to mind after seeing the pics is "AirBus" .Second name she told was "Rino".

Intial comments came : Proportions are not proper, The CUV looks like more a stretched limo. the UTE looks good other need proportions adjustments :-)

Wondering this suites well to replace the HHR than an Orlando :-)

© yankandpaste®

Thursday, December 17, 2009

Hybrid Auto rickshaw

Was wondering what may really help the world. One idea found was a Hybrid Auto rickshaw.

Auto rickshaw is a very popular common man travel in India. I think its popular in all developing world where there is more man power available.

Looks its a very good use case for a Hybrid power train as

1) it has a lot of possibility for regenerative breaking as its runs more in city traffic and low speeds

2) An electric motor for low speeds can make the efficiency improvement

3) Most important : less pollution

4) Millage increase as ICE works more on optimized conditions

I am not sure why companies like bajaj is not considering a hybrid powertrain for an auto rickshaw

© yankandpaste®

Sunday, October 25, 2009

Is that great ?

Is that great ? - that question made me think, They can did the the stuff with in minutes i requested. So it should be great ?

Why i had to request and they has to respond , so its great response not the great, If it was great then i will never have to request. But how i get a chance to recognize it was great ?

Finally i am understanding the great is never recognized. People think its normal never thinks it was great till they realize it was.

© yankandpaste®

Friday, September 4, 2009

Netmask table - for quick address - and more

Netmask              Netmask (binary)                 CIDR     Notes 
_____________________________________________________________________________  11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111  /32  Host (single addr)  11111111.11111111.11111111.11111110  /31  Unuseable  11111111.11111111.11111111.11111100  /30    2  useable  11111111.11111111.11111111.11111000  /29    6  useable  11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000  /28   14  useable  11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000  /27   30  useable  11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000  /26   62  useable  11111111.11111111.11111111.10000000  /25  126  useable    11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000  /24 "Class C" 254 useable    11111111.11111111.11111110.00000000  /23    2  Class C's    11111111.11111111.11111100.00000000  /22    4  Class C's    11111111.11111111.11111000.00000000  /21    8  Class C's    11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000  /20   16  Class C's    11111111.11111111.11100000.00000000  /19   32  Class C's    11111111.11111111.11000000.00000000  /18   64  Class C's    11111111.11111111.10000000.00000000  /17  128  Class C's      11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000  /16  "Class B"      11111111.11111110.00000000.00000000  /15    2  Class B's      11111111.11111100.00000000.00000000  /14    4  Class B's      11111111.11111000.00000000.00000000  /13    8  Class B's      11111111.11110000.00000000.00000000  /12   16  Class B's      11111111.11100000.00000000.00000000  /11   32  Class B's      11111111.11000000.00000000.00000000  /10   64  Class B's      11111111.10000000.00000000.00000000  /9   128  Class B's        11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000  /8   "Class A"        11111110.00000000.00000000.00000000  /7        11111100.00000000.00000000.00000000  /6        11111000.00000000.00000000.00000000  /5        11110000.00000000.00000000.00000000  /4        11100000.00000000.00000000.00000000  /3        11000000.00000000.00000000.00000000  /2        10000000.00000000.00000000.00000000  /1          00000000.00000000.00000000.00000000  /0   IP space                                     Net     Host    Total Net      Addr                      Addr    Addr    Number Class   Range      NetMask         Bits    Bits   of hosts ---------------------------------------------------------- A        0-127         8      24     16777216   (i.e. B      128-191      16      16        65536   (i.e. C      192-254    24       8          256   (i.e. D      224-239    (multicast) E      240-255    (reserved) F      208-215  28       4           16 G      216/8      ARIN - North America G      217/8      RIPE NCC - Europe G      218-219/8  APNIC H      220-221  29       3            8   (reserved) K      222-223  31       1            2   (reserved) (ref: RFC1375 & ) (                         ) ----------------------------------------------------------  The current list of special use prefixes:  all D/E space (ref: RFC1918   ) (       or     ) (rfc search:   ) (     ) (                )   Martians: (updates at: )  no ip source-route  access-list 100 deny   ip host any   deny ip  any log  ! antispoof   deny ip ! antispoof   deny ip any    ! antispoof   deny ip host          any log  ! antispoof   deny ip host            [router intf]  [router intf] ! antispoof   deny ip      any log  ! lan area   deny ip 0/8     any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip 1/8     any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip 2/8     any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip 5/8     any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip 7/8     any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip  any log  ! IANA - Private Use   deny ip 23/8    any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip 27/8    any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip 31/8    any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip 36-37/8  any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip 39/8    any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip 41-42/8  any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip 50/8    any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip 58-60/8  any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip 69-79/8  any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip 82-95/8  any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip 96-126/8  any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip 127/8   any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip    any log  ! link-local network   deny ip   any log  ! reserved   deny ip    any log  ! reserved   deny ip      any log  ! test network   deny ip 197/8   any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip 220/8   any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip 222-223/8  any log  ! IANA - Reserved   deny ip any log  ! multicast   deny ip any log  ! unless MBGP-learned routes   deny ip 224-239/8  any log  ! IANA - Multicast   deny ip 240-255/8  any log  ! IANA - Reserved  filtered source addresses   0/8                 ! broadcast   10/8                ! RFC 1918 private   127/8               ! loopback   169.254.0/16        ! link local       ! RFC 1918 private        ! TEST-NET   192.168.0/16        ! RFC 1918 private         ! class D multicast         ! class E reserved         ! reserved  ! broadcast  ARIN administrated blocks: ( (portions of) ----------------------------------------------------------  well known ports: (rfc1700.txt)  protocol numbers:  ICMP(Types/Codes)  Testing Destination Reachability & Status   (0/0)  Echo-Reply   (8/0)  Echo  Unreachable Destinations   (3/0)  Network Unreachable   (3/1)  Host Unreachable   (3/2)  Protocol Unreachable   (3/3)  Port Unreachable   (3/4)  Fragmentaion Needed and DF set (Pkt too big)   (3/5)  Source Route Failed   (3/6)  Network Unknown   (3/7)  Host Unknown   (3/9)  DOD Net Prohibited   (3/10) DOD Host Prohibited   (3/11) Net TOS Unreachable   (3/12) Host TOS Unreachable   (3/13) Administratively Prohibited   (3/14) Host Precedence Unreachable   (3/15) Precedence Unreachable  Flow Control   (4/0)  Source-Quench [RFC 1016]  Route Change Requests from Gateways   (5/0)  Redirect Datagrams for the Net   (5/1)  Redirect Datagrams for the Host   (5/2)  Redirect Datagrams for the TOS and Net   (5/3)  Redirect Datagrams for the TOS and Host  Router   (6/-)  Alternate-Address   (9/0)  Router-Advertisement   (10/0) Router-Solicitation  Detecting Circular or Excessively Long Routes   (11/0) Time to Live Count Exceeded   (11/1) Fragment Reassembly Time Exceeded  Reporting Incorrect Datagram Headers   (12/0) Parameter-Problem   (12/1) Option Missing   (12/2) No Room for Option  Clock Synchronization and Transit Time Estimation   (13/0) Timestamp-Request   (14/0) Timestamp-Reply  Obtaining a Network Address (RARP Alternative)   (15/0) Information-Request   (16/0) Information-Reply  Obtaining a Subnet Mask [RFC 950]   (17/0) Address Mask-Request   (18/0) Address Mask-Reply  Other   (30/0) Traceroute   (31/0) Conversion-Error   (32/0) Mobile-Redirect  Ref: [RFC 792] [RFC 896] [RFC 950] [RFC 1016]    Decimal system Prefix's               Factor               Exponent  Prefix ---------------------------------------------------  1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000...10^24....yotta      1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000...10^21....zetta          1 000 000 000 000 000 000...10^18....exa              1 000 000 000 000 000...10^15....peta                  1 000 000 000 000...10^12....tera                      1 000 000 000...10^9.....giga                          1 000 000...10^6.....mega                              1 000...10^3.....kilo                                100...10^2.....hecto                                 10...10^1.....deka                                0.1...10^-1....deci                               0.01...10^-2....centi                              0.001...10^-3....milli                          0.000 001...10^-6....micro                      0.000 000 001...10^-9....nano                  0.000 000 000 001...10^-12...pico              0.000 000 000 000 001...10^-15...femto          0.000 000 000 000 000 001...10^-18...atto      0.000 000 000 000 000 000 001...10^-21...zepto  0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 001...10^-24...yocto ---------------------------------------------------  Convert Fahrenheit <> Celsius:  Celsius = (Fahrenheit - 32) / 1.8  Fahrenheit = (Celsius * 1.8) + 32 

Wednesday, September 2, 2009

What is common ?

Check what is common on below pictures :-)

The 2 vehicle shapes are using same curves ( cut the fish, put black color and add 2 wheels )

© yankandpaste®

Saturday, July 18, 2009

The Dying twitter

The Dying twitter ? do you think so ?
Initial days there were a lot twittering ( or tweeting people ). Now i see people are back to normal life looking for the next new thing to claim they are kool. As we know its mostly the 30+ crowd who wanna show or want to make them self young, goes behind anything new.

They go behind a new tool for some time - ex blogs - every one started one and 2 months after most left.

Same is happening with the twitter now, Lot new people showed and robbers used the technology for their advantage ( remember the robbery happened reading tweets ). Now people started realizing privacy is needed. Better priority stuff back and twitters death started.

now PR people started using twitter as another way to its now a good rss reader :-).

Whatz next big thing ? Lets wait and celebrate the next one to make us young kool , techi and updated.

© yankandpaste®

Wednesday, July 1, 2009

Another high MPG IDEA : use water with Gas

Reading on some new innovations, from school. One looked interesting for increasing the mpg of a gas engine.

Use water also. No this is not to use steam for another stroke.

In this idea separate hydrogen and oxygen using a small battery and feed both also with the petrol to the engine. This enhances the firing and produces more output. so less gas is only required to have the same output. As its said that this reduces the emissions also.

© yankandpaste®

Sunday, June 7, 2009

Return of Aztek

"I was in the audience at the Detroit auto show the day GM unveiled the Pontiac Aztek and I will never forget the gasp that audience made. Holy hell! This car could not have been more instantly hated if it had a Swastika tattoo on its forehead. In later interviews with GM designers — who, for decency's sake, will remain unnamed — it emerged that the Aztek design had been fiddled with, fussed over, cost-shaved and otherwise compromised until the tough, cool-looking concept had been reduced to a bulky, plastic-clad mess. A classic case of losing the plot. The Aztek violates one of the principal rules of car design: We like cars that look like us. With its multiple eyes and supernumerary nostrils, the Aztek looks deformed and scary, something that dogs bark at and cathedrals employ to ring bells (cf., Fiat Multipla). The shame is, under all that ugliness, there was a useful, competent crossover.

The above is from "The 50 Worst Cars of All time". Doest that deserve to be so ?

In my view, This is one reason for bad GM management. I am not talking that its a bad design, In my view it was bad management handling the design.

Why ?

The Aztek design was very easy to be gone through proper wind tunnel tests and would have been getting a lowest Cd value Which may have translated to a better mileage and better aerodynamics.

The management was not able to project/market this as a feature of Aztek. They never tired for a Version 2 of Aztek and get it done with a better aerodynamics, instead they made the people who initiated the project to drive the unsold cars and made fun. Do you think they don't deserve this bankruptcy ?

If the management was good, they should have come up with a V2 and a mild hybrid engine at that time (2002 thatz would not have been a big seller but i am sure if you have a theme , it would have been a hit in 2007 )and in course of time they should have made that design a full hybrid with better aerodynamics. If you look at prius, this is what the story says to us.

Again GM deserve to be back ? again the problem is they look for new ways to make failure. When they killed EV1 program, they never used the chassis again for ICE based car, they killed that also and they showed concepts of serial hybrids but they never worked on it.

link :

Now lets see Aztek will come back or not. I am sure it is going to come back.Once Gm will introduce a 2 mode Equinox or a 2 mode SUV, It will be Aztek based design because if its aerodynamic tail and curves.

Lets wait for return of Aztek

© yankandpaste®

Friday, May 22, 2009

Method and procedure for designing a Range extender EV from emission cycle standards

As new Cafe standards and and emission control standards are in place we need to improve the efficiency of the existing vehicles.

There are multiple approaches to address the issue:

  •  Improving existing ICE by use of new technologies and designs 
  •  Use of a supplement and increase the efficiency ( hybrids )
  •  Renewable non fossil energy ( EVs, fuel cells etc )

One of the problem people face on no fossil energy use  is the energy storage technologies are not affordable and the infrastructure is not ready and they are not proved. So we need an approach which is hybrid but more upgradable to future. As the Fuel cell and EVs depends on the electricity the approach needed to be electricity centric. 

One approach is a serial hybrid. There are other approaches like parallel hybrids, mild hybrids, strong hybrids, BAS hybrids etc. The good part of  serial hybrid is that its more future oriented and its a step closer to the renewable non fossil vehicles.

This post is an extension of the previous post of "something before volt".  This post is reflections of my thoughts on a 10 mile capable battery EREV. Because its for a 10 mile range, we assume the battery costs are less. We even  think it can be a ultra capacitor also because we need a device which can store and provide energy for the vehicle to travel 10 miles electrically.

The first step is a test EV ( electric vehicle ) which as capability to record the power used by the electric engine on a defined cycle. A cycle is a defined patten of driving for a particular time period. 

The Test  Ev will have the exact motor configuration we plan to have in our final product.
Example One motor 2 rear wheels ( say 90kw) and 2 in wheel motors ( 30kw ) for the 2 front wheels.

This configuration gives the advantages of rear wheel drive and on required conditions the front wheels can act and get AWD advantages. Secondly the front motors will  be more concentrating on regeneration of power from the regenerative breaking.

As a detailed step we will go through the different cycles defined by different standard authorities for the emission tests.

look at and get the required information , contact the  authorities and get the documents.

Some interesting cycles for US  are 

  1.  US06  : 600 seconds long  representation of aggressive, high speed and/or high acceleration driving behavior, rapid speed fluctuations, and driving behavior following start up.
  2.  FTP 75 :
  3. HWFET cycle :
  4. New york city cycle :
  5.  California Unified Cycle (UC) :
  6. The SC03 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure :

etc etc. for a primary study on different cycles use :

Similarly use all the countries you are interested in and get the cycle information. 

Now perform these cycles with the test EV and get all data points and plot graph on the power requirements against time , Now you have two graphs where one with speed vs time and second energy requirements vs time. 

Repeat the procedure with the cycles you have interest and make the data ready.

Now its time to choose a optimal electric generator with 
1) Emission characteristics matching the cycle requirement.
        2) Electricity generation capability which is at an optimal level for the above data collected cycles. Assume battery will be supplementing the extra power needs.

The modes the range extender will operate are :

  • PURE EV mode
  • Generator power only mode
  • Generator power + Battery power mode
  • Battery recharge mode
  • Generator power only run   and Battery recharge mode

Regeneration can occur on all the above mode as user uses the breaks and other regenerative mechanisms ( example: regenerative shock absorbers )

So as per the logic : The range extender will run on EV mode when the battery is full and above threshold range extender point. Lets say if its  10 mile battery 5 miles in EV mode
Once it reaches 5 miles, the generator kicks in and acts as primary source of running, Now the battery will act as a supplemental energy provider on acceleration, load and uphill ( more 
energy need scenarios ). The battery will be charged back when ever there is an opportunity for regeneration of the power. The generator will recharge the battery when the vehicle is 
in a stop position or need less power than the optimal point power which generator is deigned to generate.Once the power inside the battery reaches back to a level say "return EV mode point"
say 7 mile capability, the generator will be shut off back and the Range extender will run in a Pure EV mode. again when it hits back the threshold range extender point the generator will be kicking in again back.

The points 
 1) the constant generator capacity,
 2) Threshold range extender point
 3) Return EV mode point 

etc should be designed by the applications processing unit intelligence. This can be visualized as profiles ( example: city profile, High way profile, Up hill profile, AWD profile ,Intelligent AWD profile , etc will have different values for the points and will result in different drive experiences for the users). By adding plug in charging , the vehicle should be able to work as a plug in hybrid.

Once, the design of profiles are also completed, we will be almost ready will the design and only new places to explore may be the traction control mechanisms only. Once completing the data points and logic of control, we will be ready to develop the software needed and make out EREVs first tests. The data points can be perfected using software using proving grounds, test fleets 
etc and they can be always updated with software/firmware downloads.

Yes guys, We now did a design of a global focused designed EREV. Back to key points :

1) The Generator characteristics and control interface
2) The operating points
3) The traction control mechanisms to get max out of the electric motors
4) Electric motor characteristics
5) Power dissipation capabilities and storage capabilities of battery.

I think global vehicles can be born from more thinking than just dump executions.

© yankandpaste®

Saturday, May 9, 2009

Compressed air engines

Wondering this technology can be used as range extenders in EVs or PHEV or RE - EVs. One of the good points i see is no pollution at all. 

If these air engines offer constant RPM  and get the required power to generate the electricity then this will be one of the ground breaking technologies.  

The good part seems of PHEV/REEVs are:
1)  They can be charged over night for daily needs.
2)  For range anxiety needs the air compressed engines can be used.
3) On high speeds/Winds  using aerodynamic designs  the compressor can be re-filled.
4)  With small air compressor/ Old gas stations , we can refill the air with in minutes.

Some of the engine designs looks very good (i like the Engineair one ).

© yankandpaste®

Wednesday, May 6, 2009

Volt ? something before it ?

One of the problems we hear on GM Volt is its expensive, The component which makes it expensive is the battery.Is there a second way out ?

Again i started thinking and found a solution. Lets think of a below configuration

                  +--------------------------  Control  circuit
                  |                                                       |
Electric generator ------ Ultra capacitor----Electric Motor 

Why this is cost effective ?Genarator powers the electric motor,  The ultra capacitor stores the energy from the generator  some times ( like down hill, stops etc ) and other times it stores the regenerative energy . The electric motor takes electric energy from the ultra capacitor when it needs execss energy like up hill etc. This will be very cost effective as Ultra capacitr is not expensive as battery and range requiremnt is only 10 - 15 mile ( or even 5 mile )

If the Ultra capacitor can store energy for X miles AER, the Electric generator can always run in optimum capacity and be shut off till  the ultra capacitor reaches to be in a depletion area (say x-n ). Once its in depeltion area . the generator can charge and store more energy in it and support the power needs of the car by supplying additionl energy for uphill, merge etc. 

The down side : It wont perform on uphills like normal drive it the hill is very big/steep (after ultacapacitir runs out of energy ). 

 But comparing to the cost it should be a good step to consider before the volt and it will have less weight compared to BEVs and gives the cost effective first step on full electric drive. With the other idea listed ( the NP stroke engine and Active stroke mgmt ) this will be a 150 mpg cost effective vehicles.

This may be great config for a small car. intellectual property rights reserved for idea and implementation.

© yankandpaste®

NP Stroke engine and Active Stroke cycle management

Was thinking on how to increase the efficiency of an ICE engine. 

Searched on different engines  and got one idea.

We are not even using any heat energy generated by the internal combustion engine. Lets first explain a four stroke engine 

Four stoke engine consists of 
  Intake stroke
  Compression stroke
  Power stroke
  Exhaust stroke

In intake stroke, the air is taking in then compress the air ,fuel gets injected to the compressed air and then ignited results in the power stroke and after the compression stroke the exhaust gases will be removed in the exhaust stroke. Its all fine and give 35-37% efficiency.

One of the problem is the heat is never utilized for any purpose.  So the idea of six stroke engine came in.
The six-stroke engine is a type of internal combustion engine based on the four-stroke engine, but with additional complexity to make it more efficient and reduce emissions. 

Two different types of six-stroke engine have been developed since the 1990s:

In the first approach, the engine captures the heat lost from the four-stroke Otto cycle or Diesel cycle and uses it to power an additional power and exhaust stroke of the piston in the same cylinder. Designs use either steam or air as the working fluid for the additional power stroke. As well as extracting power, the additional  stroke cools the engine and removes the need for a cooling system, making the engine lighter and giving an estimated efficiency of 40%. The pistons in this type of six-stroke engine go up and down six times for each injection of fuel.

 There are two power strokes: one with fuel, the other with steam or air.

The second approach to the six-stroke engine uses a second opposed piston in each cylinder that moves at half the cyclical rate of the  main piston, thus giving six piston movements per cycle. Functionally, the second piston replaces the valve mechanism of a conventional  engine but also increases the compression ratio. 

I started thinking more in this direction and found another way called NP Stroke engine and Active Stroke cycle management for a better solution.. 

The theory i propose always gives variable  efficiency optimal according the  circumstance of operation.  

Lets go to the first proposal of NP  stroke engine. 

N is a number where this can be 1 to any number. P denotes Power stroke, Lets explain how NP stroke engine works when N is equal to 3.

The additional requirements/changes in the design is an additional  closed hot air chamber, Air injector , Heat transfer agent and injector ( ex water).

Once the 4 strokes of 4 stroke engine is over , the exhaust stroke will push the air to the air chamber. Once the exhaust stroke is over, instead of another intake stroke,  1/3rd of the hot exhaust air stored in the air chamber is released to the intake .After this a  compression stroke of this air occurs. Once its compressed, a heat transfer agent is injected (ex: water ). This agent will utilize the heat in the exhaust gas and convert to a vapour form results in a power stroke. Once the power stroke is over another exhaust stroke occurs and the exhaust is send out. Again in another intake stroke the air injector injects another 1/3 of the exhaust gas and same 4 strokes occurs. Lets call these strokes as thermal energy transfer strokes. Once the 4 strokes are over, the last 1/3 is utilized t make another 4 strokes. which results in total of 12 strokes.

Which means the engine gets 3 times efficient than the normal 4 stroke engine. 

Here a number of  questions arises : 

Is 3 an optimal number ? 
What happens in a cold place
What happens when i drive a lot
What happens when i start the car where engine is cool.

Here the second theory comes in effect. Active Stroke cycle management:

This consists of a temperature sensor, a decision making logic and a control to the air injector attached to the hot air chamber

The temperature sensor senses the temperature and decides the optimal number of heat exchange cycles which can be performed on the current temperature.

ex: In a cold condition starting , the engine can work as normal 4 stroke, while its running heat increases and it can increase the number of thermal cycles based on the   temperature and other deciding parameters.

So in a long ride, according to the temperature readings, it can control and decide N of the NP cycle engine.This will result in high efficiency engine which is according to the operating conditions

By the implementation its possible to have 120mpg engines using attaching proper thermal conversion cycles to a 40 mpg capable engine. Once its tuned to run ,  the efficiency will be increased heavily according to the operating conditions.

tail piece: This is to make sure this idea is fresh and intellectual property rights of this idea is for me as i didn't find anybody have the idea published. The intellectual property rights includes,idea,rights of implementations , decisions of different control parameters, heat transfer agent, agent recovery methods  etc and  the trade marks of  Active Stroke cycle management/ Active cycle management.

Thanks Wikepedia to understand the prior art for this idea.

© yankandpaste®

Sunday, May 3, 2009

Accelerator pedal for electric Car

DC Motor scenario

A simple DC controller connected to the batteries and the DC motor. 

If the driver floors the accelerator pedal, the controller delivers the full 96 volts from the batteries to the motor. 
If the driver take his/her foot off the accelerator, the controller delivers zero volts to the motor. 
For any setting in between, the controller "chops" the 96 volts thousands of times per second to create an average voltage somewhere between 0 and 96 volts.

The controller takes power from the batteries and delivers it to the motor. The accelerator pedal hooks to a pair of potentiometers (variable resistors), and
 these potentiometers provide the signal that tells the controller how much power it is supposed to deliver. 

The controller can deliver zero power (when the car is stopped), full power (when the driver floors the accelerator pedal), or any power level in between.

AC motor scenario

In an AC controller, the job is a little more complicated, but it is the same idea. The controller creates three pseudo-sine waves. It does this by taking the DC voltage from the batteries and pulsing it on and off. In an AC controller, there is the additional need to reverse the polarity of the voltage 60 times a second. Therefore, you actually need six sets of transistors in an AC controller, while you need only one set in a DC controller. In the AC controller, for each phase you need one set of transistors to pulse the voltage and another set to reverse the polarity. 

You replicate that three times for the three phases -- six total sets of transistors.

Saturday, May 2, 2009

Regenerative breaking

Regenerative breaking is used on hybrid gas/electric automobiles to recoup some of the energy lost during stopping. This energy is saved in a storage battery and used later to power the motor whenever the car is in electric mode.

Understanding how regenerative braking works may require a brief look at the system it replaces. Conventional braking systems use friction to counteract the forward momentum of a moving car. As the brake pads rub against the wheels (or a disc connected to the axle), excessive heat energy is also created. This heat energy dissipates into the air, wasting up to 30% of the car's generated power. Over time, this cycle of friction and wasted heat energy reduces the car's fuel efficiency. More energy from the engine is required to replace the energy lost by braking.

Regenerative braking utilizes the fact that an electric motor can also act as a generator. The vehicle's electric traction motor is operated as a generator during braking and its output is supplied to an electrical load. It is the transfer of energy to the load which provides the braking effect.

As the driver applies the brakes through a conventional pedal, the electric motors reverse direction. The torque created by this reversal counteracts the forward momentum and eventually stops the car.

At the most basic level, regenerative braking means re-capturing the kinetic energy of the vehicle's motion and turning it into another type of energy. Commonly, this is done by converting kinetic energy into electricity and recharging the car's battery with it.The energy captured in the battery is used moving the car later and due to the energy capture and reutilization the mpg for the car improves drastically.

© yankandpaste®

What is cD and why does it matter?

Aerodynamics. When discussing overall efficiency, sometimes it's easy to overlook just how important the shape of an automobile is in determining how fuel efficient it is

First, let's discuss what the term aerodynamics means. According to Merriam-Webster, aerodynamics is "a branch of dynamics that deals with the motion of air and other gaseous fluids and with the forces acting on bodies in motion relative to such fluids." Clear as mud? In this case, the fluid we're talking about is indeed air, and the easier it is for an object to cut through the air, the less energy is required to keep that body in motion.

For the purpose of comparing different automotive designs, engineers measure the resistance of a body to flow through the air using computational fluid dynamics simulations and wind tunnel testing. A flat board held perpendicular to the air flow may have a coefficient of 1 or more, depending on the shape of the edges and the surface texture. The drag coefficient is a unitless number and is based on the shape and surface properties of the object. Two identical objects that are different sizes will have the same cD. However, that doesn't mean they have the same overall drag. 

This, of course, is further complicated by the vagaries of the real world. The addition of items like outside mirrors, windshield wipers and radio antennas can cause a lot of disruption to air-flow. There is also the fact that cars often don't travel perpendicular to air-flow. Vehicles often encounter cross-winds when driving down the road so the airflow must be measured at various angles to ensure resistance is kept to a minimum. 

Safety is also a concern.The air-flow over a vehicle's body can trigger either lift or down-force just as it does with an aircraft wing. If a vehicle's shape causes too much lift, it can make the vehicle unstable and difficult to control. All of these factors must be balanced in the final design.

The designers of all of the most fuel efficient vehicles ever offered for sale have taken aerodynamics very seriously and as such, they all have a very favorable cD. For instance, the GM EV1 scored a cD of 0.195, which is quite good. For comparison, the 2010 Toyota Prius manages a fine 0.25 and the Aptera 2e (above) blows them both out of the water air with an amazingly low 0.15. When multiplied by the car's frontal area, the Aptera design scores even better due to its narrow, bullet-like shape with narrow out-rigger front wheels that are completely shrouded . For what it's worth, the brick-shaped HUMMER H2 scores a dismal 0.57 – further proof that its designers were in no way concerned with its fuel efficiency.

Besides the actual bodywork of an automobile, there are other factors contributing to the overall coefficient of drag any given car is able to register, including the car's tires and its ride height. Wide tires move more air and therefore take more power to move, and the air pressure of a given tire can have drastic consequences on its ability to roll. 

Why is all of this so important? Calculations reveal that about 60 percent of the energy used to move the average car goes towards overcoming its aerodynamic drag. That's huge, and means that even small improvements in a car's cD can pay big dividends in overall fuel efficiency. 

Thursday, April 30, 2009

2 mode power train :Speed to time graph and modes.

2 mode powertrain, The  previous post shows mild hybrid and diagram . It gives a clear idea on differnce on mild hybrid and 2 mode hybrids (click on the pic to see it in detail )

The Two-Mode hybrid system maximizes city and highway fuel economy by integrating two electric continuously variable modes with four fixed mechanical gear ratios. The system consists of twin, active-cooled electric motors integrated into the automatic transmission. Energy to power the motors comes from a 300V nickel-metal hydride battery pack, which consists of nickel metal hydride modules and is packaged behind the second-row seat below the cargo floor.

In the first mode, at lower speed and lighter loads the 2-Mode Hybrid operates in one of three ways depending on conditions and battery charge level: all-electric power, internal combustion engine power or a combination of the two. All reverse operation is driven solely by the electric motors.

The second mode is used primarily to optimize fuel economy at highway speeds. It provides electric assist in addition to combustion engine power when conditions demand it, such as trailer towing and climbing steep grades, and to allow the engine to run at its most efficient point under less-demanding conditions.

No engine speed changes are necessary for the mode shift to occur. The result is exceptionally smooth, seamless acceleration and responsiveness. At all times, the Hybrid Optimizing System (HOS) collects torque-based data, deciphers it, then determines the most fuel-efficient means of propelling the 2-Mode Hybrid.

© yankandpaste®

Greenlings: What is a mild hybrid?

People like to categorize the world. It helps our brains figure stuff out, because we can only manage so much information. Lumping things into bins helps get information down to a manageable level. Unfortunately, most things don't readily fall into discrete categories. Hybrid drive technology is one of them, but we'll try anyway. On the continuum that is hybrid technology, we typically break things down into strong, mild and micro-hybrids. Strong hybrids include systems like Toyota's hybrid synergy drive, Ford's hybrid system and General Motors two-mode system. Micro-hybrids are really nothing more than automatic start stop systems.  Somewhere in between those groups lies the mild hybrid. The basic premise of the mild hybrid is the same as the strong hybrid. An electric motor/generator operate in parallel with the internal combustion engine to provide additional drive torque as well as regenerative braking. The primary difference lies in the power and energy capacity of the electrical side of the system. Continue reading about mild hybrids after the jump. 

Why would an automaker create a mild hybrid system? Mainly to get some of the benefits of a hybrid system at a significantly lower cost and weight. Mild hybrids typically have a much smaller battery than a strong hybrid and a smaller, weaker motor/generator. The first manufacturer to build a system that fits into the mild category is generally considered to be Honda with it's Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) system as used in the Insight and Civic. 

Since the Insight debuted in 1999, General Motors has released two different mild hybrid systems, one that was briefly offered in the Silverado hybrid in 2005-6 and the more recent belt-alternator-starter (BAS) system offered on several models. Mercedes-Benz and BMW have also co-developed a system of their own that will debut this summer on the S400 BlueHybrid and then on the new 7-series.  The GM system uses what is essentially a beefed up alternator and modified belt drive system to provide some additional drive torque to the engine as well as re-start it. Other systems, such as those from Honda and Mercedes, use a disk-shaped motor-generator sandwiched between the engine and transmission to provide the same functionality. The motor also takes the place of the torque converter in the transmission. 

During deceleration the mild hybrid system can also provide some regenerative braking capability. Because the battery pack is generally smaller than what you find on a strong hybrid, the ability to store energy to drive the vehicle is limited. However, the Mercedes-BMW mild hybrid is using the electrical power in a different way. The energy stored in the battery is being used to drive vehicle electrical systems such as audio, windows, HVAC and others. By using recaptured kinetic energy, the load on the alternator is reduced, cutting parasitic losses.  The Mercedes mild hybrid system will be the first mainstream hybrid to use a lithium ion battery. The Continental-supplied battery is mounted under-hood and is the same size as the traditional lead-acid starter battery, which is replaced by the lithium unit. In 2010, GM plans to launch a second-generation version of its mild hybrid. The new version increases the motor power from 5 to 15 kW and the current nickel metal hydride battery is replaced by a higher capacity, lighter lithium ion unit.  While a mild hybrid system can't drive the vehicle on electricity alone, it still provides benefits. Like direct injection and turbocharging, it allows the automaker to downsize the base engine while maintaining the same performance level. The combination of the reduced peak output of the engine and eliminating engine idle can contribute fuel consumption savings of up to 15 percent in urban driving and 8-10 percent overall. While not as significant as a strong hybrid, these benefits come at a much lower cost in mild hybrid form.

© yankandpaste®

Wednesday, April 1, 2009

Why Indians Don't Envy Israel?

And Why Tharoor's Brief for Israel Is Not Convincing.

Perhaps, it was a well-intended article, meant to instill sense to the senseless people who have been clamoring for an all-out war with Pakistan to take out the terrorist camps and to put an end to the terrorist strikes that have become so commonplace lately. I said perhaps. Perhaps because I still respect the author for his writings that used to uphold the plurality and secularism of India; for all that he has written against the growing clout of the majority fundamentalism in India. But then, I wrote perhaps. Perhaps because the Haaretz article does not read like one from the celebrated author and champion of Indian plurality, who once wrote if America is the melting pot of cultures, India is more like a thali meal, where each dish has its own character and taste and yet complements each other in making the meal a satisfying repast.

India's Israel Envy, read the title, which the author later attributed to the Israeli newspaper editors. But, for all that one understands from the piece, the title just sums up what Mr. Tharoor says in so many words-a case of sour grapes.

Look at the words used in the first paragraph. "As Israeli planes and tanks were exacting a heavy toll on Gaza, India's leaders and strategic thinkers were watching with an unusual degree of interest - and some empathy." Unusual degree of interest and some empathy from India's leaders and strategic thinkers, it says. For all that we know, our country and most of our leaders till very recently-that is until the BJP Government opened diplomatic channels with Israel-had their sympathies with the people of Palestine, for their just cause, for all their sufferings. And even now, the right-thinking people of this country who haven't lost sense of justice have their sympathies with the cause of Palestine. So, from where does this interest-isn't it such a positive word? Like watching a cricket match? I thought we watched terrorist attacks - government-sponsored and private - with anxiety, and not interest-come from? And empathy? Well, only Mr. Tharoor knows when did our sympathies for Palestine people transform into empathy for Israel.

Mr. Tharoor's admiration for the Israeli action becomes clear as he goes on eulogizing Israeli determination in dealing with the Hamas. As if to show that he is not the only Indian charmed by the Israeli iron fist, he writes that the Indians have been nodding in appreciation and asking "why can't we do the same?"

He continues:
"For many Indians, the temptation to identify with Israel was strengthened by the terrorists' seizure of the Chabad House, and the painful awareness that India and Israel share many of the same enemies. India, with its 150 million Muslims, has long been a staunch supporter of the Palestinian cause, and remains strongly committed to an independent Palestinian state. But the Mumbai attacks confirmed what has become apparent in recent years: The forces of global Islamist terror have added Indians to their target list of reviled "Jews and crusaders."
Just as Israel has frequently been attacked by rockets fired from across its border, India has suffered repeated assaults by killers trained, equipped, financed and directed by elements based next door, in Pakistan. When President George W. Bush's press secretary equated members of Hamas with the Mumbai killers, her comments were widely circulated in India."

After painfully building his argument that there are many parallels between India and Israel and cleverly putting India with the Western forces in the Us versus Them global war on terror, he declares: "Yet there the parallels end". And that line did make me hope that he was coming to the facts there. I thought he would tell us why we shouldn't put the terrorism in India and Israel in the same bracket. I thought he would tell us why people should stop eulogizing the Israeli determination and understand that what Israel is carrying out on Palestine and its people is another brand of terrorism-a state-sponsored, home-grown brand, and that Palestinians were forced to doing what they are doing now by decades of Israeli (with the active support and encouragement of the US) atrocities against the people of Palestine, that UN and the people of this world have been made mute-spectators to one of the worst human-right tragedies of our times.

Instead, he goes on to build a rather baffling argument:
"Israel is a small country living in a permanent state of siege, highly security-conscious and surrounded by forces hostile to it; India is a giant country whose borders are notoriously permeable, an open society known for its lax and easygoing ways."
The problem is with our country and our people, he says. He forgets that we are fighting different issues; except for the Islamic prefix (well, then, who said Gujarat pogrom was not a terrorist activity? What about Malegaon? Babri Masjid?), there isn't much in common. I wish I were a little too naïve to think that Sashi Tharoor doesn't know these.

What is more baffling is his parroting the Sangh Parivar line of India being a soft state. He forgets the realities. He forgets what India has been doing in fighting terrorism. He forgets that we cannot afford to have a tough-state label at the cost of basic human rights. And, most surprisingly, he doesn't talk about the causes of terrorism at all; he talks only about the symptoms and addressing the symptoms. Baffling, isn't it? A friend suggested that he might have lost his senses the moment he joined Indian politics; not that I think all our politicians are senseless, but I liked that observation for want of anything better to explain Tharoor's rather nonsensical article.

After explaining in length about why we "cannot" do what Israel is doing; he concludes:
"Yet, when Indians watch Israel take the fight to the enemy, killing those who launched rockets against it and dismantling many of the sites from which the rockets flew, some cannot resist wishing that they could do something similar in Pakistan. India understands, though, that the collateral damage would be too high, the price in civilian lives unacceptable, and the risks of the conflict spiraling out of control too acute to contemplate such an option. So Indians place their trust in international diplomacy and watch, with ill-disguised wistfulness, as Israel does what they could never permit themselves to do."
Again, look at the words; whoever said words do matter was so right I realize as I watch, disappointed, another icon, created by powerful words, being demolished by his own words. Take the fight to the enemy, he wrote, betraying his sympathies for Israeli action. Suddenly, he sounds so pedestrian, pretends like someone who has forgotten his history lessons, like one of those next-door knicker-wallahs who make sweeping statements like every madrassas in this country has terrorists in them and should be taken out along with the terrorist camps across the border. Yeah, those knicker-wallahs have long been talking about taking a few leaves out of the Israel's anti-terrorist operations.

Mr. Tharoor goes on to say that Indians watch Israel doing what they could never permit themselves to do, with ill-disguised wistfulness! And the reasons why we CANNOT do to Pakistan what Israel does to Palestine, the nuclear warheads Pakistan has; otherwise, we could have done what the US has done in Afghanistan and Iraq, what Israel continues to do with Palestine. As I finished reading the piece, I couldn't help wondering whether he has really lost his senses. Perhaps.

© yankandpaste®

Tuesday, March 31, 2009

Hybrids as per cafe

Power Split Hybrid

The Power Split hybrid (PSHEV) is described as a full or a strong hybrid since it has the ability to move the vehicle on electric power only. It replaces the vehicle’s transmission with a single planetary gear and a motor/generator. A second, more powerful motor/generator is directly connected to the vehicle’s final drive. The planetary gear splits the engine’s torque between the first motor/generator and the final drive. The first motor/generator uses power from the engine to either charge the battery or supply power to the wheels. The speed of the first motor/generator determines the relative speed of the engine to the wheels. In this way, the planetary gear allows the engine to operate independently of vehicle speed, much like a CVT. The Toyota Prius and the Ford Hybrid Escape are two examples of power split hybrid vehicles.

2-Mode Hybrid

The 2-mode hybrid (2MHEV) is another strong hybrid system that has all-electric drive capability. The 2MHEV uses an adaptation of a conventional stepped-ratio automatic transmission by replacing some of the transmission clutches with two electric motors, which makes the transmission act like a CVT. Like the Power Split hybrid, these motors control the ratio of engine speed to vehicle speed. But unlike the Power Split system, clutches allow the motors to be bypassed, which improves both the transmission’s torque capacity and efficiency for improved fuel economy at highway speeds. This type of system is used in the Chevy Tahoe Hybrid.

Plug-In Hybrid

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) are very similar to other strong hybrid electric vehicles, but with significant functional differences. The key distinguishing feature is the ability to charge the battery pack from an outside source of electricity (usually the electric grid). A PHEV would have a larger battery pack with greater energy capacity, and an ability to be discharged further (referred to as “depth of discharge”). No major manufacturer currently has a PHEV in production, although both GM and Toyota have publicly announced that they will launch plug-in hybrids in limited volumes by 2010.

© yankandpaste®

Thursday, February 19, 2009

The new electric era : 2010

Every car maker asking money to govt, what went wrong ? and whatz next

Yes its new era beginning, people are looking for EVs ( electric vehicles ). Its all about locally generated renewable energy. 

As of now a lot manufactures are plotting plans to come with EVs

Mini EV is already on roads
Plug in Prius is getting ready
I Miev is getting ready to be launched
Nissan plans its launch on 2010.

and Volt from GM

Volt looks like a normal car with 100 mph top speed and only 40 miles range, where volt can run with an   petrol after that.

I was also thinking ICE engine to a generator and then to a battery and then to electric motor, how this is going to be more efficient than a Ice engine connected to wheels because it has some elements in between and everywhere there is energy losses. 

Yes i was also thinking this way till i started reading that the ICE engine in normal driving conditions have only 20% efficiency. so ?

The max efficiency is at highways when its cruising. Another aspect which was mind blowing was it requires only around 47hp when you are cruising. The only place we use the HP is merging to highway or uphill or some other conditions and we never used to use the full HP of and engine.

Here is the advantage of the electric motor configuration comes. 

We can operate the ICE engine at its max efficiency when its operating to generate to electric power. 

We can store the power in ultra capacitors/ batteries

We can generate additional  power from regenerative shocks and breaks.

We can control the power distribution with software logic when we are using electric motors.

We can optimize the power distribution with software logic and its upgradable as time passes.

What this translates to ?

Yes a 120 mpg. The Ice engine with gives a 40 mpg is translated to a 120 mpg with the serial hybrid config

Yes the logic  behind Volt is simple, translate the formulas to a never imagined MPG, If you drive only less than 40 miles /64 km them you charge your car and drive - complete renewable energy, and if you drive more, efficient use of energy which takes 3 fold by intelligent algorithms

Yes Lets welcome the new ERA of Volt , Way to go GM  (if  the these numbers matches with your tests ). Its totally green  !!

© yankandpaste®

Saturday, January 31, 2009

Loading IOS image via TFTP in ROMMON

Always a pain in the backside, isn’t it, when you’re stuck with a router that has no image on it. Even if you up the baud rate to 115,200 it still takes an age to download an image over the serial port to the thing.

More recent routers seem to have a TFTP client built-into the ROMMON software though. Not entirely sure how recent a router has to be in order to have this facility, but it’s very handy and saves a lot of time.

You basically set a few environment variables so that the router knows what its IP address is, where the server is and what the file it should download is. After that, just issue the “tftpdnld” command and off it goes. Here’s what you do:

rommon 11 > IP_ADDRESS=
rommon 12 > IP_SUBNET_MASK=
rommon 13 > DEFAULT_GATEWAY=
rommon 14 > TFTP_SERVER=
rommon 15 > TFTP_FILE=c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-13a.bin
rommon 16 > tftpdnld
TFTP_FILE: c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-13a.bin
TFTP_MACADDR: 00:13:80:7b:20:1e
FE_SPEED_MODE: Auto Detect
Invoke this command for disaster recovery only.
WARNING: all existing data in all partitions on flash will be lost!
Do you wish to continue? y/n: [n]: y

Receiving c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-13a.bin from !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
File reception completed.
Validating checksum.
Copying file c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-13a.bin to flash.
program load complete, entry point: 0×8000f000, size: 0xc100
Initializing ATA monitor library…….
Format: Drive communication & 1st Sector Write OK…
Writing Monlib sectors.
Monlib write complete
Format: All system sectors written. OK…
Format: Operation completed successfully.
Format of flash: complete
program load complete, entry point: 0×8000f000, size: 0xc100
Initializing ATA monitor library…….
rommon 17 >

Once that’s done, just issue a reset command and it should boot into IOS.

from :
© yankandpaste®

Saturday, January 24, 2009


While it seems like there are only minor differences, the truth is an E-REV is substantially different than a hybrid. Essentially, a hybrid is a vehicle that is designed to use gasoline as its primary fuel and electricity as a supplement. At lower speeds and light engine loads, some hybrids use only electricity. At higher speeds or rates of acceleration, they operate in a “blended” mode, with both the larger gas engine and smaller electric motor running. Even the most efficient hybrids on the road only get a battery-powered boost at low speeds, while most of the time still burning gas. So while a hybrid is more efficient than a conventional internal combustion engine, under normal driving conditions it will use more gas than an E-REV operating in all-electric mode.

Volt would be the first car to flip that equation. In fact, Volt's unique advanced design has helped establish a new category — Extended-Range Electric Vehicles or E-REVs. Basically, an electric motor would drive the vehicle at all times. So you'll be accelerating, driving on the highway, going uphill — all the normal driving requirements — propelled by electric power. A small gasoline engine and a generator would kick in when the battery power is depleted after driving up to 40 miles. The gas engine and generator then produce all the electricity needed to keep driving for hundreds of miles. It's this range-extending technology that makes EREV so unique. Think of EREV as an electric car that can generate its own electricity, allowing you to continue efficiently without any worry of running out of power.

Volt would be the first car to flip that equation. In fact, Volt's unique advanced design has helped establish a new category — Extended-Range Electric Vehicles or E-REVs. Basically, an electric motor would drive the vehicle at all times. So you'll be accelerating, driving on the highway, going uphill — all the normal driving requirements — propelled by electric power. A small gasoline engine and a generator would kick in when the battery power is depleted after driving up to 40 miles. The gas engine and generator then produce all the electricity needed to keep driving for hundreds of miles. It's this “range-extending” technology that makes Volt so unique. Think of Volt as an electric car that can generate its own electricity, allowing you to continue efficiently without any worry of running out of power.

Because the engine drives a generator that will run at a constant speed, the power band can be optimized for maximum fuel efficiency and lower emissions. The engine will not fully charge the battery (this would be an inefficient use of gasoline). Rather, it will provide enough juice to keep the car going until it can be fully charged in a household outlet. This kind of advanced propulsion system means there are fewer demands on the engine, which can be sized, engineered and controlled to operate in a narrow range of rpm and at peak efficiency.

Because the engine drives a generator that will run at a constant speed, the power band can be optimized for maximum fuel efficiency and lower emissions. The engine will not fully charge the battery (this would be an inefficient use of gasoline). Rather, it will provide enough juice to keep the car going until it can be fully charged in a household outlet. This kind of advanced propulsion system means there are fewer demands on the engine, which can be sized, engineered and controlled to operate in a narrow range of rpm and at peak efficiency.

Extraordinary technological breakthroughs have helped Volt capture the public's imagination. But the real story of the Volt is how all that fuel-saving, emissions-reducing technology will help fundamentally change the way we drive, without affecting the driving patterns and habits that we're used to.

from :

© yankandpaste®

Sunday, January 4, 2009

Fantastic Cheese…

Bob claims he has invented a cheese that is so unique and wonderful (the “Fantastic Cheese”) that his Fantastic Cheese will make all other traditional cheese options commercially obsolete.
Bob’s reputation is one of being a smart technical innovator. Bob previously worked as an engineer at a large company doing work that is related to how Fantastic Cheese will be manufactured.

Bob has received some financial backing from a respected venture capital firm called New Ideas Capital. New Ideas Capital states in their Investing Policy Statement that they are focusing on investing in cheese related companies because New Ideas Capital believes that cheese is a future growth sector however New Ideas Capital will not discuss their investment in Bob’s Fantastic Cheese.

A large respected military food packaging and catering company called War Food’s, Inc. has provided some funding to Bob to help Bob further develop Fantastic Cheese. Bob has agreed provide War Food’s Inc an exclusive for Fantastic Cheese for certain military food products.
Nobody has seen or tasted Bob’s Fantastic Cheese although Bob has started to build his Fantastic Cheese factory.

An independent company has certified that Bob’s factory is capable of propagating Bob’s proprietary baseline cheese starter bacterial culture. Bob claims his cheese starter bacterial culture contains a unique balance of enzymes that interact in the curdling process in such a way that the cheese becomes Fantastic Cheese.

An independent company has certified that Bob’s factory contains cooking vats capable of maintaining a constant temperature within one quarter of one degree centigrade. Bob claims it is critical to be able to maintain an exact temperature during the cooking process to manufacture Fantastic Cheese.

A very large portion of the cheese produced worldwide is used for pizza toppings. Therefore the potential worldwide market for Fantastic Cheese as a pizza topping is fantastic if Fantastic Cheese is as fantastic as Bob claims. Every pizza maker will want Fantastic Cheese because Fantastic Cheese will render all other cheeses obsolete.

Given all the above facts, why would Bob license his Fantastic Cheese to a small pizza operator under terms that allows the small pizza operator to be the only pizza operator to use Fantastic Cheese?

from : Read comments

© yankandpaste®